Invocation to Sage Patanjali

योगेन चित्तस्य पदेन वाचां ।
मलं शरीरस्य  वैद्यकेन ॥
योऽपाकरोत्तमं प्रवरं मुनीनां ।
पतञ्जलिं प्राञ्जलिरानतोऽस्मि ॥

Let us bow before the noblest of sages, Patanjali, who gave yoga for serenity and sanctity of mind, grammar for clarity and purity of speech, and medicine for perfection of health.

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali is a collection of 196 aphorisms, each one concerning an aspect of the path to enlightenment through yoga. Acclaimed as one of the most profound and enlightening studies of human nature and the search for spiritual liberation, the Sutras were compiled over 2,000 years ago.

The book is divided into four chapters or padas (parts or quarters), covering the art, science and philosophy of life. The 196 sutras are succinct, precise, profound, and devout in approach. Each contains a wealth of ideas and wisdom to guide the aspirant (sadhaka) towards full knowledge of his own real nature. This knowledge leads to the experience of perfect freedom, beyond common understanding.

The four chapters or padas of the book are:

  1. Samadhi Pada (on contemplation)
  2. Sadhana Pada (on practice)
  3. Vibhuti Pada (on properties and powers)
  4. Kaivalya Pada (on emancipation and freedom)


The first chapter, Samadhi Pada, defines yoga and the movement of the consciousness, citta vrtti. It is directed towards those who are already highly evolved to enable them to maintain their advanced state of cultured, matured intelligence and wisdom. Rare indeed are such human souls who experience Samadhi early in life, for Samadhi is the last stage of the eightfold path of yoga.

Samadhi is seeing the soul face to face, an absolute, indivisible state of existence, in which all differences between body, mind and soul are dissolved. Such sages as Hanuman, Suka, Dhruva, Prahlada, Sankaracarya, Kabir, Svami Ramdas, Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and Ramana Maharshi, evolved straight to kaivalya without experiencing the intermediate stages of life or the various stages of yoga. All the actions of these great seers arose from their souls, and they dwelled throughout their lives in a state of unalloyed bliss and purity.

The word Samadhi is made up of two components. Sama means level, alike, straight, upright, impartial, just, good and virtuous; and adhi means over and above, i.e. the indestructible seer. Samadhi is the tracing of the source of consciousness – the seer – and then diffusing its essence, impartially and evenly, throughout every particle of the intelligence, mind, senses and body.

We may suppose that Patanjali’s intention, in beginning with an exegesis of Samadhi, was to attract those rare souls who were already on the brink of Self-Realization, and to guide them into experiencing the state of non-duality itself. For the uninitiated majority, the enticing prospect of Samadhi, revealed so early in his work, serves as a lamp to draw us into yogic discipline, which will refine us to the point where our own soul becomes manifest.

अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥
atha yoga-anuśāsanam ॥1॥
Yoga in the here and now: an introduction to the study and practice of yoga ||1||

योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः ॥२॥
yogaś-citta-vr̥tti-nirodhaḥ ॥2॥
When you are in a state of yoga, all misconceptions (vrittis) that can exist in the mutable aspect of human beings (chitta) disappear. ||2||

तदा द्रष्टुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥
tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe-‘vasthānam ॥3॥
For finding our true self (drashtu) entails insight into our own nature. ||3||

वृत्ति सारूप्यमितरत्र ॥४॥
vr̥tti sārūpyam-itaratra ॥4॥
Lacking that, misconceptions (vritti) skew our perceptions. ||4||

वृत्तयः पञ्चतय्यः क्लिष्टाक्लिष्टाः ॥५॥
vr̥ttayaḥ pañcatayyaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ ॥5॥
There are five types of misconceptions (vrittis), some of which are more agreeable than others: ||5||

प्रमाण विपर्यय विकल्प निद्रा स्मृतयः ॥६॥
pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smr̥tayaḥ ॥6॥
insight, error, imaginings, deep sleep, and recollections.

प्रत्यक्षानुमानाअगमाः प्रमाणानि ॥७॥
pratyakṣa-anumāna-āgamāḥ pramāṇāni ॥7॥
Insight arises from direct perception, conclusions, or learning that are based on reliable sources. ||7||

विपर्ययो मिथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रतिष्ठम् ॥८॥
viparyayo mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa pratiṣṭham ॥8॥
Error arises from knowledge that is based on a false mental construct. ||8||

शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो विकल्पः ॥९॥
śabda-jñāna-anupātī vastu-śūnyo vikalpaḥ ॥9॥
Imaginings are engendered by word knowledge without regard for what actually exists in the real world. ||9||

अभावप्रत्ययाअलम्बना तमोवृत्तिर्निद्र ॥१०॥
abhāva-pratyaya-ālambanā tamo-vr̥ttir-nidra ॥10॥
Deep sleep is the absence of all impressions resulting from opacity in that which is mutable in human beings (chitta). ||10||

अनुभूतविषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृतिः ॥११॥
anu-bhūta-viṣaya-asaṁpramoṣaḥ smr̥tiḥ ॥11॥
Recollections are engendered by the past, insofar as the relevant experience has not been eclipsed. ||11||

अभ्यासवैराग्याअभ्यां तन्निरोधः ॥१२॥
abhyāsa-vairāgya-ābhyāṁ tan-nirodhaḥ ॥12॥
The state of yoga is attained via a balance between assiduousness (abhyasa) and imperturbability (vairagya). ||12||

तत्र स्थितौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥
tatra sthitau yatno-‘bhyāsaḥ ॥13॥
Assiduousness means resolutely adhering to one’s practice of yoga. ||13||

स तु दीर्घकाल नैरन्तर्य सत्काराअदराअसेवितो दृढभूमिः ॥१४॥
sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra-ādara-āsevito dr̥ḍhabhūmiḥ ॥14॥
Success can definitely be achieved via sound and continuous practice over an extended period of time, carried out in a serious and thoughtful manner. ||14||

दृष्टानुश्रविकविषयवितृष्णस्य वशीकारसंज्णा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥
dr̥ṣṭa-anuśravika-viṣaya-vitr̥ṣṇasya vaśīkāra-saṁjṇā vairāgyam ॥15॥
Imperturbability results from a balance in the consciousness, and when the desire for all things that we see or have heard of is extinguished. ||15||

तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्ण्यम् ॥१६॥
tatparaṁ puruṣa-khyāteḥ guṇa-vaitr̥ṣṇyam ॥16॥
The highest state of imperturbability arises from the experience of the true self; in this state even the basic elements of nature lose their power over us. || 16||

वितर्कविचाराअनन्दास्मितारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥
vitarka-vicāra-ānanda-asmitā-rupa-anugamāt-saṁprajñātaḥ ॥17॥
This absolute knowledge is engendered incrementally by divination, experience, joy, and ultimately the feeling of oneness. ||17||

विरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूर्वः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥
virāma-pratyaya-abhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṁskāra-śeṣo-‘nyaḥ ॥18॥
The other state of insight, which is based on persistent practice, arises when all perception has been extinguished and only non-manifest impressions remain. ||18||

भवप्रत्ययो विदेहप्रकृतिलयानम् ॥१९॥
bhava-pratyayo videha-prakr̥ti-layānam ॥19॥
Some people are born with true insight, whereas others attain it via a divine body or oneness with nature. ||19||

श्रद्धावीर्यस्मृति समाधिप्रज्ञापूर्वक इतरेषाम् ॥२०॥
śraddhā-vīrya-smr̥ti samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣām ॥20॥
And then there are some for whom trust, determination, memory and divination lay the groundwork for insight. ||20||

तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥
tīvra-saṁvegānām-āsannaḥ ॥21॥
The goal is achieved through intensive practice. ||21||

मृदुमध्याधिमात्रत्वात्ततोऽपि विशेषः ॥२२॥
mr̥du-madhya-adhimātratvāt-tato’pi viśeṣaḥ ॥22॥
This practice can be light, moderate or intensive. ||22||

ईश्वरप्रणिधानाद्वा ॥२३॥
īśvara-praṇidhānād-vā ॥23॥
The goal can also be attained via submission to the concept of an ideal being (ishvara). ||24||

क्लेश कर्म विपाकाअशयैःअपरामृष्टः पुरुषविशेष ईश्वरः ॥२४॥
kleśa karma vipāka-āśayaiḥ-aparāmr̥ṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ ॥24॥
Ishavara is a special being that is unaffected by the obstacles of the spiritual aspirant (klesha), specific actions and consequences (karma), or recollections or desires. ||24||

तत्र निरतिशयं सर्वज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥
tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajña-bījam ॥25॥
Ishavara is unmatched and is the source of all knowledge. ||25||

स एष पूर्वेषामपिगुरुः कालेनानवच्छेदात् ॥२६॥
sa eṣa pūrveṣām-api-guruḥ kālena-anavacchedāt ॥26॥
Ishvara is each and every one, and is even the teacher of the first ones; he is unaffected by time ||26||

तस्य वाचकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥
tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ ॥27॥
OM is a symbol for ishvara. ||27||

तज्जपः तदर्थभावनम् ॥२८॥
taj-japaḥ tad-artha-bhāvanam ॥28॥
Repetition of OM (with this meaning) leads to contemplation. ||28||

ततः प्रत्यक्चेतनाधिगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभवश्च ॥२९॥
tataḥ pratyak-cetana-adhigamo-‘py-antarāya-abhavaś-ca ॥29॥
Through this practice, the immutable self is revealed and all obstacles (antaraya) are removed. ||29||

व्याधि स्त्यान संशय प्रमादाअलस्याविरति भ्रान्तिदर्शनालब्धभूमिकत्वानवस्थितत्वानि चित्तविक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥
vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramāda-ālasya-avirati bhrāntidarśana-alabdha-bhūmikatva-anavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepāḥ te antarāyāḥ ॥30॥
These obstacles (antaraya) (illness; inertia; doubt; neglect; sloth; desire; blindness; a lack of goals; irresoluteness) obscure that which is immutable in human beings (chitta). ||30||

दुःखदौर्मनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वश्वासप्रश्वासाः विक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥
duḥkha-daurmanasya-aṅgamejayatva-śvāsapraśvāsāḥ vikṣepa sahabhuvaḥ ॥31॥
Suffering, depression, nervousness, and agitated breathing are signs of this lack of clarity. ||31||

तत्प्रतिषेधार्थमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥
tat-pratiṣedha-artham-eka-tattva-abhyāsaḥ ॥32॥
He who practices assiduously overcomes these obstacles. ||32||

मैत्री करुणा मुदितोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पुण्यापुण्यविषयाणां भावनातः चित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥
maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya-viṣayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam ॥33॥
All that is mutable in human beings (chitta) is harmonized through the cultivation of love (maitri), helpfulness (karuna), conviviality (mudita) and imperturbability (upeksha) in situations that are happy, painful, successful or unfortunate. ||33||

प्रच्छर्दनविधारणाअभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥
pracchardana-vidhāraṇa-ābhyāṁ vā prāṇasya ॥34॥
The goal can be attained through breathing exercises involving holding your breath before exhaling. ||34||

विषयवती वा प्रवृत्तिरुत्पन्ना मनसः स्थिति निबन्धिनी ॥३५॥
viṣayavatī vā pravr̥tti-rutpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhinī ॥35॥
– Or by contemplating things and impressions, which promotes mental stability and consolidation ||35||

विशोका वा ज्योतिष्मती ॥३६॥
viśokā vā jyotiṣmatī ॥36॥
– Or by contemplating the inner light that is free of suffering. ||36||

वीतराग विषयम् वा चित्तम् ॥३७॥
vītarāga viṣayam vā cittam ॥37॥
– Or if what is mutable in human beings (chitta) is no longer the handmaiden of desire. ||37||

स्वप्ननिद्रा ज्ञानाअलम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥
svapna-nidrā jñāna-ālambanam vā ॥38॥
– Or through knowledge that is derived from a nocturnal dream. ||38||

यथाअभिमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥
yathā-abhimata-dhyānād-vā ॥39॥
– Or through contemplation (dhyana) of love. ||39||

परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥
paramāṇu parama-mahattva-anto-‘sya vaśīkāraḥ ॥40॥
A person who attains this goal has mastery over everything, from the smallest atom to the entire universe. ||40||

क्षीणवृत्तेरभिजातस्येव मणेर्ग्रहीतृग्रहणग्राह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तिः ॥४१॥
kṣīṇa-vr̥tter-abhijātasy-eva maṇer-grahītr̥-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tatstha-tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ ॥41॥
Once the misconceptions (vritti) have been minimized, everything that is mutable in human beings (chitta) becomes as clear as a diamond, and perceptions, the perceived, and perceiver are melded with each other. – One builds on and colors the other. This is enlightenment (samapatti). ||41||

तत्र शब्दार्थज्ञानविकल्पैः संकीर्णा सवितर्का समापत्तिः ॥४२॥
tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ ॥42॥
In conjunction with word and object knowledge, or imagination, this state is savitarka samapatti. ||42||

स्मृतिपरिशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवार्थमात्रनिर्भासा निर्वितर्का ॥४३॥
smr̥ti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyeva-arthamātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā ॥43॥
Once all previous impressions (smriti) have been purged and one’s own nature is clearly perceptible, then only the object of contemplation emanates light. This is nirvitarka samapatti. ||43||

एतयैव सविचारा निर्विचारा च सूक्ष्मविषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥
etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣaya vyākhyātā ॥44॥
If the object of concentration is of a subtle nature, these two described states are known as savichraara and nirvichara samapatti. ||44||

सूक्ष्मविषयत्वम्चालिण्ग पर्यवसानम् ॥४५॥
sūkṣma-viṣayatvam-ca-aliṇga paryavasānam ॥45॥
An object can be subtle to the point of indefinability. ||46||

ता एव सबीजस्समाधिः ॥४६॥
tā eva sabījas-samādhiḥ ॥46॥
All of these states of consciousness are called sabija samadhi. ||46||

निर्विचारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥
nirvicāra-vaiśāradye-‘dhyātma-prasādaḥ ॥47॥
If you regularly experience the clearest of the four aforementioned states known as nirvichara samapatti, then you are about to experience a state of absolute clarity. ||47||

ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥
r̥taṁbharā tatra prajñā ॥48॥
– Then consciousness will be filled with truth. ||48||

श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाअभ्यामन्यविषया विशेषार्थत्वात् ॥४९॥
śruta-anumāna-prajñā-abhyām-anya-viṣayā viśeṣa-arthatvāt ॥49॥
Consciousness is characterized by a special relationship to the object. This relationship exceeds the bounds of knowledge that is received and followed. ||49||

तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रतिबन्धी ॥५०॥
tajjas-saṁskāro-‘nya-saṁskāra pratibandhī ॥50॥
This experience gives rise to an impression (samskara) that supplants other impressions (samskara). ||50||

तस्यापि निरोधे सर्वनिरोधान्निर्बीजः समाधिः ॥५१॥
tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān-nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ ॥51॥
Nirbiija samadhi is attained once even these impressions have become tranquil and when everything has become tranquil. ||51||


In the second chapter, sadhana pada, Patanjali comes down to the level of the spiritually unevolved to help them, too, to aspire to absolute freedom. Here he coins the word kriya yoga. Kriya means action, and kriya yoga emphasizes the dynamic effort to be made by the sadhaka. It is composed of eight yogic disciplines, yama and niyama, asana and pranayama, pratyahara and dharana, dhyana and samadhi. These are compressed into three tiers. The tier formed by the first two pairs, yama and niyama, asana and pranayama, comes under tapas (religious spirit in practice). The second tier, pratyahara and dharana, is self-study (svadhyaya). The third, dhyana and samadhi, is lsvara pranidhana, the surrender of the individual self to the Universal Spirit, or God (lsvara).

In this way, Patanjali covers the three great paths of Indian philosophy in the Yoga Sutras. Karma marga, the path of action is contained in tapas; jnana marga, the path of knowledge, in svadhyaya; and bhakti marga, the path of surrender to God, in lsvara pranidhana.

In this chapter, Patanjali identifies avidya, spiritual ignorance, as the source of all sorrow and unhappiness. Avidya is the first of the five kleshas, or afflictions, and is the root of all the others egoism, attachment, aversion and clinging to life. From these arise desires, sowing the seeds of sorrow.

Afflictions are of three types. They may be self-inflicted, hereditary, or caused through imbalance of elements in the body. All are consequences of one’s actions, in this or previous lifetimes, and are to be overcome through practice and renunciation in the eight yogic disciplines which cover purification of the body, senses and mind, an intense discipline whereby the seeds are incinerated, impurities vanish, and the seeker reaches a state of serenity in which he merges with the seer.

For one who lacks ethical discipline and perfect physical health, there can be no spiritual illumination. Body, mind and spirit are inseparable if the body is asleep, the soul is asleep.

The seeker is taught to perform asanas so that he becomes familiar with his body, senses and intelligence. He develops alertness, sensitivity, and the power of concentration. Pranayama gives control over the subtle qualities of the elements – sound, touch, shape, taste and smell. Pratyahara is the withdrawal into the mind of the organs of action and senses of perception.

Sadhana pada ends here, but Patanjali extends dharana, dhyana and samadhi, the subtle aspects of sadhana, into the next chapter, vibhuti pada. These three withdraw the mind into the consciousness, and the consciousness into the soul.

The journey from yama to pratyahara, described in sadhana pada, ends in the sea of tranquility, which has no ripples. If chitta is the sea, its movements (vrittis) are the ripples. Body, mind and consciousness are in communion with the soul; they are now free from attachments and aversions, memories of place and time. The impurities of body and mind are cleansed, the dawning light of wisdom vanquishes ignorance, innocence replaces arrogance and pride, and the seeker becomes the seer.

तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ॥१॥
tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ ॥1॥
Practice characterized by rigor and vigilance toward itself, without attachment to the outcome, is known as kriya yoga. ||1||

समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेश तनूकरणार्थश्च ॥२॥
samādhi-bhāvana-arthaḥ kleśa tanū-karaṇa-arthaś-ca ॥2॥
If your practice is aligned with your goal (samadhi), the obstacles along your spiritual path (klesha) will disappear and ultimately you will reach your goal. ||2||

अविद्याअस्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशः क्लेशाः ॥३॥
avidyā-asmitā-rāga-dveṣa-abhiniveśaḥ kleśāḥ ॥3॥
The obstacles along the spiritual path (klesha) are as follows: a lack of insight (avidya); identification with the mutable (asmita); the belief that happiness (raga) or unhappiness (dvesha) result from outer circumstances; deep seated anxiety (abinivesha). ||3||

अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषाम् प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम् ॥४॥
avidyā kṣetram-uttareṣām prasupta-tanu-vicchinn-odārāṇām ॥4॥
A lack of insight (avidya) is the source of most kleshas (obstacles) and can be latent, incipient, full fledged or overwhelming. ||4||

अनित्याअशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखाअत्मख्यातिरविद्या ॥५॥
anityā-aśuci-duḥkha-anātmasu nitya-śuci-sukha-ātmakhyātir-avidyā ॥5॥
A combination of the eternal and transitory, purity and impurity, joy and suffering, or the mutable and immutable in human beings are all referred to as a lack of insight (avidya). ||5||

दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतैवास्मिता ॥६॥
dr̥g-darśana-śaktyor-ekātmata-iva-asmitā ॥6॥
Confusing the immutable core with the transient shell is referred to as identification with the mutable (asmita). ||6||

सुखानुशयी रागः ॥७॥
sukha-anuśayī rāgaḥ ॥7॥
The presumption that happiness depends on external circumstances is referred to as desire (raga). ||7||

दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः ॥८॥
duḥkha-anuśayī dveṣaḥ ॥8॥
The notion that pain and suffering are caused by external circumstances is referred to as aversion (dvesha). ||8||

स्वरस्वाहि विदुषोऽपि समारूढोऽभिनिवेशः ॥९॥
svarasvāhi viduṣo-‘pi samārūḍho-‘bhiniveśaḥ ॥9॥
Anxiety (abhinivesha) arises spontaneously and can even dominate your entire existence. ||9||

ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः ॥१०॥
te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ ॥10॥
This burden (klesha) should be nipped in the bud. || 10||

ध्यान हेयाः तद्वृत्तयः ॥११॥
dhyāna heyāḥ tad-vr̥ttayaḥ ॥11॥
Medidating (dhyana) on that which we wish to overcome eliminates such misconceptions that arise from human mutability (vritti). ||11|

क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ॥१२॥
kleśa-mūlaḥ karma-aśayo dr̥ṣṭa-adr̥ṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ ॥12॥
Obstacles (kleshas) are the breeding ground for tendencies that give rise to actions and the consequences (karma) thereof. Such obstacles are experienced as visible or invisible obstacles. ||12||

सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ॥१३॥
sati mūle tad-vipāko jāty-āyur-bhogāḥ ॥13॥
The outcome of these circumstances is manifested by a person’s station in life, longevity, and the extent to which they achieve happiness. ||13||

ते ह्लाद परितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ॥१४॥
te hlāda paritāpa-phalāḥ puṇya-apuṇya-hetutvāt ॥14॥
The outcome of an action is felicitous or infelicitous depending on whether the foundation is successful or unsuccessful. ||14||

परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥
pariṇāma tāpa saṁskāra duḥkhaiḥ guṇa-vr̥tti-virodhācca duḥkham-eva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ ॥15॥
Suffering is caused by change in the outside world, as well as impressions, desires (samsakra), misconceptions (vritti) and conflict. Suffering is omnipresent for those who have the capacity to differentiate. ||15||

हेयं दुःखमनागतम् ॥१६॥
heyaṁ duḥkham-anāgatam ॥16॥
But future suffering can be avoided. ||16||

द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥
draṣṭr̥-dr̥śyayoḥ saṁyogo heyahetuḥ ॥17॥
For identificaiton of the true self (drashtu) with that which is mutable is the cause of suffering. ||17||

प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियाअत्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम् ॥१८॥
prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-śīlaṁ bhūtendriya-ātmakaṁ bhoga-apavarga-arthaṁ dr̥śyam ॥18॥
Objects and situations in the physical world can be characterized by purity (sattva), unrest (rajas), or inertia (tamas); they are physical or etheric and result in short term pleasure or long term redemption ||18||

विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि ॥१९॥
viśeṣa-aviśeṣa-liṅga-mātra-aliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi ॥19॥
Physical objects exhibit the following states: determinable; unspecific; symbolic; beyond symbols ||19||

द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥२०॥
draṣṭā dr̥śimātraḥ śuddho-‘pi pratyaya-anupaśyaḥ ॥20॥
Only the true self (drashtu) sees; it is immutable, although seeing is based on accurate perception. ||20||

तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्याअत्मा ॥२१॥
tadartha eva dr̥śyasya-ātmā ॥21॥
Physical objects can only be deemed to such if perceived by the true self (atma) ||21||

कृतार्थं प्रतिनष्टंअप्यनष्टं तदन्य साधारणत्वात् ॥२२॥
kr̥tārthaṁ pratinaṣṭaṁ-apy-anaṣṭaṁ tadanya sādhāraṇatvāt ॥22॥
Once an object has fulfilled its purpose, it does not disappear but instead remains in existence as such for others; for the object is valid for all. ||22||

स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोप्लब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥२३॥
svasvāmi-śaktyoḥ svarūp-oplabdhi-hetuḥ saṁyogaḥ ॥23॥
The sole purpose of linking the mutable with the extant is to recognize the true enduring form. ||23||

तस्य हेतुरविद्या ॥२४॥
tasya hetur-avidyā ॥24॥
The root cause of identification with the mutable is a lack of insight (avidya). ||24||

तदभाबात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम् ॥२५॥
tad-abhābāt-saṁyoga-abhāvo hānaṁ taddr̥śeḥ kaivalyam ॥25॥
When a lack of insight (avidya) disappears, this identification likewise disappears. Once this identification has completely disappeared, liberation (kaivalya) of the true self (drashtu) has occurred. ||25||

विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः ॥२६॥
viveka-khyātir-aviplavā hānopāyaḥ ॥26॥
The capacity to make distinctions (viveka) and uninterrupted insight are the path to this goal. ||26||

तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञ ॥२७॥
tasya saptadhā prānta-bhūmiḥ prajña ॥27॥
This path to insight has seven steps. ||27||

योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः ॥२८॥
yoga-aṅga-anuṣṭhānād-aśuddhi-kṣaye jñāna-dīptir-āviveka-khyāteḥ ॥28॥
Through practice of these limbs of yoga, impurity is overcome and wisdom and an enduring capacity to make disinctions are achieved. ||28||

यम नियमाअसन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणा ध्यान समाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि ॥२९॥
yama niyama-āsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo-‘ṣṭāvaṅgāni ॥29॥
The limbs of the eight-fold path are as follows: respect for others (yama) and yourself (niyama); harmony with your body (asana), your energy (pranayama), your thoughts (dharana), and your emotions (pratyahara); contemplation (dhyana); ecstasy (samadhi). ||29||

अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥
ahiṁsā-satya-asteya brahmacarya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ ॥30॥
Respect for others (yama) is based on non-violence (ahimsa); truthfulness (satya); not stealing (asteya); non-covetousness (aparigraha); and acting with an awareness of higher ideals (brahma-charya). ||30||

जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥
jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā-mahāvratam ॥31॥
Showing respect for others without regard for social station, or for place, time, or circumstance in all spheres of this respect is a great virtue. ||31||

शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥
śauca saṁtoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ॥32॥
Cleanliness (shaucha), contentment (santosha), self-discipline (tapas), learning from yourself (svadhyaya) and accepting your fate (iishvara-pranidhana) automatically translate into the practice of respect (niyama). ||32||

वितर्कबाधने प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥
vitarka-bādhane pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ॥33॥
Uncertainty concerning implementation can be overcome via orientation with the reverse. ||33||

वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहाअपूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥
vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kr̥ta-kārita-anumoditā lobha-krodha-moha-āpūrvakā mr̥du-madhya adhimātrā duḥkha-ajñāna-ananta-phalā iti pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ॥34॥
Violent thoughts (himsa) induce unending suffering and ignorance. In such cases, it makes no difference whether you’re the perpetrator, the person who gives the orders, or the instigator; or whether the thoughts are provoked by greed, anger, or delusion; or whether small, medium or large scale action is involved. This is why orienting yourself toward the reverse is helpful. ||34||

अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायं तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्याघः ॥३५॥
ahiṁsā-pratiṣṭhāyaṁ tat-sannidhau vairatyāghaḥ ॥35॥
Once a condition of durable non-violence (ahimsa) has been established, all enmity will be abandoned in your environs. ||35||

सत्यप्रतिष्थायं क्रियाफलाअश्रयत्वम् ॥३६॥
satya-pratiṣthāyaṁ kriyā-phala-āśrayatvam ॥36॥
Once a state of truth (satya) has been permanently established, each statement will form the basis for a truthful result. ||36||

अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम् ॥३७॥
asteya-pratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarvaratn-opasthānam ॥37॥
Once non-stealing has been permanently established, all riches will be available. ||37||

ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः ॥३८॥
brahma-carya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīrya-lābhaḥ ॥38॥
Performing each action with an awareness of a higher ideal (brahma-charya) engenders tremendous strength. ||38||

अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंता संबोधः ॥३९॥
aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathaṁtā saṁbodhaḥ ॥39॥
The permanent reign of non-covetousness (aparigraha) engenders knowledge concerning the goal of earthly life. ||39||

शौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः ॥४०॥
śaucāt svāṅga-jugupsā parairasaṁsargaḥ ॥40॥
Purity (shaucha) results in the abandonment of physicality and the cessation of physical contact with external things. ||40||

सत्त्वशुद्धिः सौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयाअत्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च ॥४१॥
sattva-śuddhiḥ saumanasya-ikāgry-endriyajaya-ātmadarśana yogyatvāni ca ॥41॥
Also the capacity for clarity, cleanliness, cheerfulness and intentness, as well as mastery over the senses, ultimately give rise to self realization. ||41||

संतोषातनुत्तमस्सुखलाभः ॥४२॥
saṁtoṣāt-anuttamas-sukhalābhaḥ ॥42॥
An attitude of contentment (santosha) gives rise to unexcelled happiness, mental comfort, joy, and satisfaction. ||42||

कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात् तपसः ॥४३॥
kāyendriya-siddhir-aśuddhi-kṣayāt tapasaḥ ॥43॥
Through self discipline (tapas), mental impurities are destroyed and the body and senses take on supernatural powers. ||43||

स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवता संप्रयोगः ॥४४॥
svādhyāyād-iṣṭa-devatā saṁprayogaḥ ॥44॥
Self-study and reflection on yourself (svadhyaya) brings you into contact with the desired ideal. ||44||

समाधि सिद्धिःईश्वरप्रणिधानात् ॥४५॥
samādhi siddhiḥ-īśvarapraṇidhānāt ॥45॥
By accepting your fate (ishvarapranidhana), you achieve self knowledge (samadhi) and supernatural power (siddhi). ||45||

स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥
sthira-sukham-āsanam ॥46॥
Practicing yoga with strength and in a relaxed manner gives rise to harmony with the physical body (asana). ||46||

प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम् ॥४७॥
prayatna-śaithilya-ananta-samāpatti-bhyām ॥47॥
The key to success in this regard is practice with effort, which becomes progressively easier, combined with deep contemplation (samapatti). ||47||

ततो द्वङ्द्वानभिघातः ॥४८॥
tato dvaṅdva-an-abhighātaḥ ॥48॥
This results in a victory over the duality of life. ||48||

तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥
tasmin sati śvāsa-praśvāsyor-gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ ॥49॥
Once harmony with the physical body has been achieved, through interruption of the movement engendered by inhaling and exhaling you attempt to harmonize your energy (pranayama). ||49||

बाह्याअभ्यन्तरस्थम्भ वृत्तिः देशकालसन्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः ॥५०॥
bāhya-ābhyantara-sthambha vr̥ttiḥ deśa-kāla-sankhyābhiḥ paridr̥ṣṭo dīrgha-sūkṣmaḥ ॥50॥
Exhalation, inhalation, retention, technique, time and number must be very precisely regulated over a lengthy period. ||50||

बाह्याअभ्यन्तर विषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः ॥५१॥
bāhya-ābhyantara viṣaya-akṣepī caturthaḥ ॥51॥
The fourth pranayama technique ultimately transcends breath retention after exhaling or inhaling. ||51||

ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशाअवरणम् ॥५२॥
tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśa-āvaraṇam ॥52॥
The veil covering the light of the true self then vanishes.

धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ॥५३॥
dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ ॥53॥
And the mind develops the capacity for harmony with thoughts (dharana). ||53||

स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकारैवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥
svaviṣaya-asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra-iv-endriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ ॥54॥
Harmony with the emotions (pratyahara) is achieved when the senses cease to be engaged with external objects and thus that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) becomes similar to true nature. ||54||

ततः परमावश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् ॥५५॥
tataḥ paramā-vaśyatā indriyāṇām ॥55॥
Thus do you gain supreme mastery of your senses. ||55||


The third chapter vibhuti pada, speaks of the divine effects of yoga sadhana. It is said that the sadhaka who in this state has full knowledge of past, present and future, as well as of the solar system. He understands the minds of others. He acquires the eight supernatural powers or siddhis the ability to become small and large, light and heavy, to acquire, to attain every wish, to gain supremacy and sovereignty over things.

These achievements are dangerous. The sadhaka is cautioned to ignore their temptations and pursue the spiritual path. If the sadhaka succumbs to the lure of the siddhis, he will be like a person running away from a gale only to be caught in a whirlwind. If he resists, and perseveres on the spiritual path, he will experience kaivalya, the indivisible, unqualified, undifferentiated state of existence.

देशबन्धः चित्तस्य धारणा ॥१॥
deśa-bandhaḥ cittasya dhāraṇā ॥1॥
Harmony with your thoughts and the ability to concentrate are attained by aligning the mutable aspects of humankind with a specific subject. ||1||

तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम् ॥२॥
tatra pratyaya-ikatānatā dhyānam ॥2॥
Allowing your thoughts to flow in an uninterrupted stream results in contemplation (dhyana). ||2||

तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिवसमाधिः ॥३॥
tadeva-artha-mātra-nirbhāsaṁ svarūpa-śūnyam-iva-samādhiḥ ॥3॥
Insight (samadhi) occurs when only the subject matter of the orientation shines forth without any being affected by the person in question. ||3||

त्रयमेकत्र संयमः ॥४॥
trayam-ekatra saṁyamaḥ ॥4॥
The three processes of dharana, dhyana, and samadhi, when taken together, are the components of meditation (samyama). ||4||

तज्जयात् प्रज्ञालोकः ॥५॥
tajjayāt prajñālokaḥ ॥5॥
Mastery of this meditation gives rise to absolute knowledge of all that can be perceived. ||5||

तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः ॥६॥
tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ ॥6॥
This meditation is carried out in the three aforementioned successive steps. ||6||

त्रयमन्तरन्गं पूर्वेभ्यः ॥७॥
trayam-antarangaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ ॥7॥
These three steps are more internal (anga) than the previous steps. ||7||

तदपि बहिरङ्गं निर्बीजस्य ॥८॥
tadapi bahiraṅgaṁ nirbījasya ॥8॥
However, these three steps are still external compared to ultimate knowledge (nirbija samadhi). ||8||

व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोः अभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षण चित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः ॥९॥
vyutthāna-nirodha-saṁskārayoḥ abhibhava-prādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇa cittānvayo nirodha-pariṇāmaḥ ॥9॥
That high level of mastery called nirodhah-parinamah occurs in the moment of transition when the rising tendency of deep impressions, the subsiding tendency, and the mutable nature of humankind (chitta) converge. ||9||

तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारत् ॥१०॥
tasya praśānta-vāhitā saṁskārat ॥10॥
The tranquil flow of transition to tranquility gives rise to a new impression (samskara). ||10||

सर्वार्थता एकाग्रातयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः ॥११॥
sarvārthatā ekāgrātayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhi-pariṇāmaḥ ॥11॥
The transition to insight (samadhi-parinama) is characterized by the mutability in human beings (chitta) becoming progressively less scattered, whereas the tendency toward consolidation increases. ||11||

ततः पुनः शातोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः ॥१२॥
tataḥ punaḥ śātoditau tulya-pratyayau cittasya-ikāgratā-pariṇāmaḥ ॥12॥
The transition to one-pointedness, or ekagrata-parinamah, is the transition whereby human mutability (chitta) becomes perfectly balanced between arising and subsiding. ||12||

एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्था परिणामा व्याख्याताः ॥१३॥
etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharma-lakṣaṇa-avasthā pariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ ॥13॥
This explains the transformation of relinquishment (dharma-parinama), characteristics (lakshana-parinama) and states into material elements of the senses. ||13||

शानोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी ॥१४॥
śān-odita-avyapadeśya-dharmānupātī dharmī ॥14॥
Past, present and future tasks are all based on one and the same foundation. ||14||

क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यतेवे हेतुः ॥१५॥
kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyateve hetuḥ ॥15॥
Distinctness in transformation (anyatvam-parinama) are based on differences in the sequence ||15||

परिणामत्रयसंयमाततीतानागत ज्ञानम् ॥१६॥
pariṇāmatraya-saṁyamāt-atītānāgata jñānam ॥16॥
Meditation (samyama) on the three types of change (parinama-traya) gives rise to knowledge of the past and future. ||16||

शब्दार्थप्रत्ययामामितरेतराध्यासात्संकरः तत्प्रविभागसंयमात् सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम् ॥१७॥
śabdārtha-pratyayāmām-itaretarādhyāsāt-saṁkaraḥ tat-pravibhāga-saṁyamāt sarvabhūta-ruta-jñānam ॥17॥
The name, task and experience associated with an object are interconnected. By meditating (samyama) on the distinction between these three, we attain knowledge (jnana) concerning the form of expression of all living beings. ||17||

संस्कारसाक्षात्करणात् पूर्वजातिज्ञानम् ॥१८॥
saṁskāra-sākṣātkaraṇāt pūrva-jāti-jñānam ॥18॥
Through meditation on our impressions (samskaras) comes the knowledge (jnana) of previous incarnations. ||18||

प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम् ॥१९॥
pratyayasya para-citta-jñānam ॥19॥
Meditation on the thoughts of another person gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of their mutable being (chitta). ||19||

न च तत् सालम्बनं तस्याविषयी भूतत्वात् ॥२०॥
na ca tat sālambanaṁ tasya-aviṣayī bhūtatvāt ॥20॥
But we learn nothing from the true nature of another person, for they are not an object that can be perceived. ||20||

कायरूपसंयमात् तत्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुः प्रकाशासंप्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम् ॥२१॥
kāya-rūpa-saṁyamāt tat-grāhyaśakti-stambhe cakṣuḥ prakāśāsaṁprayoge-‘ntardhānam ॥21॥
Through meditation on the form of one’s own physical body, it becomes possible to impede the capacity that renders the body visible. This precludes a connection between light and the eyes and renders the body invisible to others. ||21||

सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमातपरान्तज्ञानम् अरिष्टेभ्यो वा ॥२२॥
sopa-kramaṁ nirupa-kramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamāt-aparāntajñānam ariṣṭebhyo vā ॥22॥
Meditation (samyama) on foreseeable and unforeseeable causes and causal relationships (karma) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning fate. ||22||

मैत्र्यदिषु बलानि ॥२३॥
maitry-adiṣu balāni ॥23॥
Meditating on love (maitri) and the other positive attitudes (see ys 1.33) engenders the necessary strength. ||23||

बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनी ॥२४॥
baleṣu hastibalādīnī ॥24॥
Meditating on strength itself engenders the strength of an elephant. ||24||

प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात् सूक्ष्माव्यावहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम् ॥२५॥
pravr̥tty-āloka-nyāsāt sūkṣmā-vyāvahita-viprakr̥ṣṭa-jñānam ॥25॥
Meditating on the source of the inner light gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of subtle, concealed and remote entities. ||25||

भुवज्ञानं सूर्येसंयमात् ॥२६॥
bhuva-jñānaṁ sūrye-saṁyamāt ॥26॥
Meditation (samyama) on the sun gives rise to knowledge (jnana) of the ethereal and physical worlds. ||26||

चन्द्रे तारव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥२७॥
candre tāravyūha-jñānam ॥27॥
Meditating on the moon (chandra) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning the arrangement of the stars. ||27||

ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम् ॥२८॥
dhruve tadgati-jñānam ॥28॥
Meditating on the polestar engenders knowledge (jnana) of its constellation. ||28||

नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम् ॥२९॥
nābhicakre kāyavyūha-jñānam ॥29॥
Meditation on the energy center of the navel (nabhi chakra) gives rise to knowledge (jnana) concerning the arrangement and structure of the physical body. ||29||

कन्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासा निवृत्तिः ॥३०॥
kanṭha-kūpe kṣutpipāsā nivr̥ttiḥ ॥30॥
Meditation on the pit of the throat (kantha kupa) causes hunger and thirst to cease. ||30||

कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम् ॥३१॥
kūrma-nāḍyāṁ sthairyam ॥31॥
Meditation on the energy in the spine (kurma nadi) engenders steadiness. ||31||

मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम् ॥३२॥
mūrdha-jyotiṣi siddha-darśanam ॥32॥
Meditation on the light inside the head engenders contact with the masters (siddhas). ||32||

प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम् ॥३३॥
prātibhād-vā sarvam ॥33॥
Meditiation on intuition engenders knowledge about everything. ||33||

ह्र्डये चित्तसंवित् ॥३४॥
hrḍaye citta-saṁvit ॥34॥
Meditation on the heart (hridaya) engenders knowledge concerning human mutability (chitta). ||34||

सत्त्वपुरुषायोः अत्यन्तासंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषोभोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात् पुरुषज्ञानम् ॥३५॥
sattva-puruṣāyoḥ atyantā-saṁkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo-bhogaḥ para-arthat-vāt-sva-arthasaṁyamāt puruṣa-jñānam ॥35॥
Outer enjoyment (bhoga) arises from a failure to distinguish between the physical world and the true self, which are very different from each other.
Knowledge (jhana) of the true self (purusha) arises from meditation (samyama) on matters concerning the true self rather than external matters. ||35||

ततः प्रातिभस्रावाणवेदनाअदर्शाअस्वादवार्ता जायन्ते ॥३६॥
tataḥ prātibha-srāvāṇa-vedana-ādarśa-āsvāda-vārtā jāyante ॥36॥
This results in intuitive hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling. ||36||

ते समाधवुपसर्गा[ः]व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः ॥३७॥
te samādhav-upasargā[ḥ]-vyutthāne siddhayaḥ ॥37॥
These powers are of secondary importance to those who have attained knowledge (samadhi), but are nonetheless feats for materially oriented individuals. ||37||

बद्न्हकारणशैथिल्यात् प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः ॥३८॥
badnha-kāraṇa-śaithilyāt pracāra-saṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ ॥38॥
Relinquishing the causes of attachment to the physical realm and gaining knowledge of the energy channels engenders the ability to enter into another body. ||38||

उदानजयाअत् जलपण्खकण्टकादिष्वसङ्गोऽत्क्रान्तिश्च ॥३९॥
udāna-jayāat jala-paṇkha-kaṇṭakādiṣv-asaṅgo-‘tkrāntiśca ॥39॥
Gaining mastery over upward flowing energy (udana-vayu) severs contact with mud, water, thorns and the like; whereupon the yogi levitates. ||39||

समानजयाज्ज्वलनम् ॥४०॥
samāna-jayāj-jvalanam ॥40॥
Mastery over metabolic energy (samana-vayu) engenders inner fire. ||40||

श्रोत्राअकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् दिव्यं श्रोत्रम् ॥४१॥
śrotra-ākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt divyaṁ śrotram ॥41॥
Meditation (samyama) on the relationship between space and the power of hearing engenders the divine power of hearing. ||41||

कायाकाशयोः संबन्धसंयमात् लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाअकाश गमनम् ॥४२॥
kāyākāśayoḥ saṁbandha-saṁyamāt laghu-tūla-samāpatteśca-ākāśa gamanam ॥42॥
Meditating (samyama) on the relationship between the body and space and contemplating (samapatti) the lightness of cotton engender the ability to move through space weightlessly. ||42||

बहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिः महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशाअवरणक्षयः ॥४३॥
bahir-akalpitā vr̥ttiḥ mahā-videhā tataḥ prakāśa-āvaraṇa-kṣayaḥ ॥43॥
Meditating on unimaginable external thought waves gives rise to maximum disembodiment. This in turn lifts the veil on the true self. ||43||

स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमात् भूतजयः ॥४४॥
sthūla-svarūpa-sūkṣma-anvaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt bhūtajayaḥ ॥44॥
Meditating on the outer manifestations, true nature, underlying principle, temporal sequence, and purpose of something engenders mastery (jaya) of the physical elements (bhutas). ||44||

ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसंपत् तद्धरानभिघात्श्च ॥४५॥
tato-‘ṇimādi-prādurbhāvaḥ kāyasaṁpat tad-dharānabhighātśca ॥45॥
This mastery engenders the ability to make the body appear to be extremely small, as well as attainment of an absolutely physical body and its indestructible integrity. ||45||

रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसंपत् ॥४६॥
rūpa-lāvaṇya-bala-vajra-saṁhananatvāni kāyasaṁpat ॥46॥
The perfection of the body includes beauty, gracefulness, strength, and adamantine hardness. ||46||

ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मिताअवयार्थवत्त्वसंयमातिन्द्रिय जयः ॥४७॥
grahaṇa-svarūpa-asmitā-avaya-arthavattva-saṁyamāt-indriya jayaḥ ॥47॥
Meditation (samyama) on the process of perception, its actual form, your I-ness, and the purpose of your life engenders mastery (jaya) over the senses. ||47||

ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च ॥४८॥
tato mano-javitvaṁ vikaraṇa-bhāvaḥ pradhāna-jayaś-ca ॥48॥
This results in quickness of mind, liberation from the sense organs, and mastery (jaya) over matter. ||48||

सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाअधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च ॥४९॥
sattva-puruṣa-anyatā-khyātimātrasya sarva-bhāvā-adhiṣṭhātr̥tvaṁ sarva-jñātr̥tvaṁ ca ॥49॥
Mastery of feelings and omniscience can only be attained through knowledge of the difference between the physical world and the true self. ||49||

तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम् ॥५०॥
tad-vairāgyād-api doṣa-bīja-kṣaye kaivalyam ॥50॥
Non-attachment (vairagya) even from that omiscience destroys the foundation of all dysbalances (dosha) and results in liberation (kaivalya). ||50||

स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात् ॥५१॥
sthāny-upa-nimantraṇe saṅga-smaya-akaraṇaṁ punar-aniṣṭa-prasaṅgāt ॥51॥
When the celestial beings beckon, the yogi should avoid forming any attachment to this complacency, since this contact can reinstate undesirable attachment. ||51||

क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमात् विवेकजंज्ञानम् ॥५२॥
kṣaṇa-tat-kramayoḥ saṁyamāt vivekajaṁ-jñānam ॥52॥
Meditation (samyama) on the moments and their succession give rise to knowledge (jnana) that is born from discernment (viveka). ||52||

जातिलक्षणदेशैः अन्यताअनवच्छेदात् तुल्ययोः ततः प्रतिपत्तिः ॥५३॥
jāti-lakṣaṇa-deśaiḥ anyatā-anavacchedāt tulyayoḥ tataḥ pratipattiḥ ॥53॥
This gives rise to knowledge of distinction between two similar objects that are not normally distinguishable on the basis of their category, characteristics, or position in space. ||53||

तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमंचेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम् ॥५४॥
tārakaṁ sarva-viṣayaṁ sarvathā-viṣayam-akramaṁ-ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam ॥54॥
Knowledge that is born of discernment transcends all objects, all beings and all time. ||54||

सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यम् ॥५५॥
sattva-puruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyam ॥55॥
Liberation (kaivalya) comes when parity between the physical world and the true self (purusha) is attained. ||55||


In the fourth chapter Kaivalya Pada, Patanjali distinguishes kaivalya from samadhi. In samadhi, the sadhaka experiences a passive state of oneness between seer and seen, observer and observed, subject and object. In kaivalya, he lives in a positive state of life, above the tamasic, rajasic and sattvic influences of the three gunas of nature. He moves in the world and does day-to-day work dispassionately, without becoming involved in it.

Patanjali says it is possible to experience kaivalya by birth, through use of drugs, by repetition of mantra, or by tapas (intense, disciplined effort) and through samadhi. Of these, only the last two develop mature intelligence and lead to stable growth.

Man may make or mar his progress through good actions or bad. Yogic practices lead to a spiritual life; non-yogic actions bind one to the world. The ego, ahamkara, is the root cause of good and bad actions. Yoga removes the weed of pride from the mind and helps the seeker to trace the source of all actions, the consciousness, wherein all past impressions (samskaras) are stored. When this ultimate source is traced through yogic practices, the sadhaka is at once freed from the reactions of his actions. Desires leave him.

Desire, action and reaction are spokes in the wheel of thought, but when consciousness has become steady and pure, they are eliminated. Movements of mind come to an end. He becomes a perfect yogi with skillful actions. As wick, oil and flame combine to give light, so thought, speech and action unite, and the yogi’s knowledge becomes total. For others, whose knowledge and understanding are limited, an object may be one thing, experience of the object another, and the word quite different from both. These vacillations of mind cripple one’s capacity for thought and action. The yogi differentiates between the wavering uncertainties of thought processes and the understanding of the Self, which is changeless. He does his work in the world as a witness, uninvolved and uninfluenced. His mind reflects its own form, undistorted, like a crystal. At this point, all speculation and deliberation come to an end and liberation is experienced. The yogi lives in the experience of wisdom, untinged by the emotions of desire, anger, greed, infatuation, pride, and malice. This seasoned wisdom is truth-bearing (rtambhara prajna). It leads the sadhaka towards virtuous awareness, dharma megha samadhi, which brings him a cascade of knowledge and wisdom. He is immersed in kaivalya, the constant burning light of the soul, illuminating the divinity not only in himself, but also in those who come in contact with him.

जन्मओषधिमन्त्रतपस्समाधिजाः सिद्धयः ॥१॥
janma-oṣadhi-mantra-tapas-samādhi-jāḥ siddhayaḥ ॥1॥
Supernatural powers (siddhis) arise from birth, drugs, mantras, austerity, or yoga (samadhi) ||1||

जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात् ॥२॥
jāty-antara-pariṇāmaḥ prakr̥ty-āpūrāt ॥2॥
Physical transformation engenders inner transformation of the form of existence. ||2||

निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनांवरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत् ॥३॥
nimittam-aprayojakaṁ prakr̥tīnāṁ-varaṇa-bhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat ॥3॥
However, outer causes are not sufficient to bring about inner change, which can be likened to a farmer removing a sluice gate so as to allow water to irrigate his rice field so that rice can grow there. ||3||

निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात् ॥४॥
nirmāṇa-cittāny-asmitā-mātrāt ॥4॥
The mutable self (chitta) is engendered solely by identification with that which is mutable. ||4||

प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम् ॥५॥
pravr̥tti-bhede prayojakaṁ cittam-ekam-anekeṣām ॥5॥
While the forms may manifest in various ways, the mutable essence (chitta) is the underlying principle of these many forms. ||5||

तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम् ॥६॥
tatra dhyānajam-anāśayam ॥6॥
In the various manifestations, the impression engendered by contemplation (dhyana) is free of influences. ||6||

कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनः त्रिविधमितरेषाम् ॥७॥
karma-aśukla-akr̥ṣṇaṁ yoginaḥ trividham-itareṣām ॥7॥
For a yogi, the law of cause and effect (karma) is neither white nor black, but is threefold for others. ||7||

ततः तद्विपाकानुग्णानामेवाभिव्यक्तिः वासनानाम् ॥८॥
tataḥ tad-vipāka-anugṇānām-eva-abhivyaktiḥ vāsanānām ॥8॥
In accordance with this law of cause and effect, the fruits ripen that correspond to the underlying desires (vasanas). ||8||

जाति देश काल व्यवहितानामप्यान्तर्यां स्मृतिसंस्कारयोः एकरूपत्वात् ॥९॥
jāti deśa kāla vyavahitānām-apy-āntaryāṁ smr̥ti-saṁskārayoḥ ekarūpatvāt ॥9॥
Even if modality, place and time cease to exist, the continuity of wish and consequences remains, for remembrance (smriti) and impressions (samskaras) are part of the same being. ||9||

तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात् ॥१०॥
tāsām-anāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt ॥10॥
The continuity arising from wish and reality has no beginning, for the will to live is eternal. ||10||

हेतुफलाअश्रयाअलम्बनैःसंगृहीतत्वातेषामभावेतदभावः ॥११॥
hetu-phala-āśraya-ālambanaiḥ-saṁgr̥hītatvāt-eṣām-abhāve-tad-abhāvaḥ ॥11॥
The continuity of wish and reality arises from supporting factors and external objects. If they disappear, the continuity arising from wish and reality likewise disappears. ||11||

अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्तिअध्वभेदाद् धर्माणाम् ॥१२॥
atīta-anāgataṁ svarūpato-‘sti-adhvabhedād dharmāṇām ॥12॥
The past and future exist inherently. Tasks (dharma) arise from the changes. ||12||

ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्माः गुणात्मानः ॥१३॥
te vyakta-sūkṣmāḥ guṇa-atmānaḥ ॥13॥
These characteristics are manifest or subtle, physical or spiritual ||13||

परिणामैकत्वात् वस्तुतत्त्वम् ॥१४॥
pariṇāma-ikatvāt vastu-tattvam ॥14॥
The uniqueness of change comprises the essence of everything. ||15||

वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः ॥१५॥
vastusāmye citta-bhedāt-tayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ ॥15॥
That which is mutable in us (chitta) takes various paths to the same object, perception of which thus differs from one person another . ||15||

न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं चेद्वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात् ॥१६॥
na caika-citta-tantraṁ cedvastu tad-apramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt ॥16॥
Nor does an object depend on that which is mutable in human beings; for if it did, then what would happen to the object if it were not perceived? ||16||

तदुपरागापेक्षित्वात् चित्तस्य वस्तुज्ञाताज्ञातं ॥१७॥
tad-uparāga-apekṣitvāt cittasya vastu-jñātājñātaṁ ॥17॥
However, whether an object, situation or person is understood or misjudged depends on the emotional preconceptions and the expectations of that which is mutable in human beings. ||17||

सदाज्ञाताः चित्तव्र्त्तयः तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात् ॥१८॥
sadājñātāḥ citta-vrttayaḥ tat-prabhoḥ puruṣasya-apariṇāmitvāt ॥18॥
The true self can always observe the misconceptions (vritti) in that which is mutable in human beings, because this pure self (purusha) is not in motion. ||18||

न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात् ॥१९॥
na tat-svābhāsaṁ dr̥śyatvāt ॥19॥
As that which is mutable in human beings is not inherently identifiable, it is a perceptible object. ||19||

एक समये चोभयानवधारणम् ॥२०॥
eka samaye c-obhaya-an-avadhāraṇam ॥20॥
Nor can both the mind and the illuminating process be cognized simultaneously. ||20||

चित्तान्तर दृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेः अतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसंकरश्च ॥२१॥
cittāntara dr̥śye buddhi-buddheḥ atiprasaṅgaḥ smr̥ti-saṁkaraś-ca ॥21॥
That which is mutable in one human being (chitta) being perceived by another mutable human being (chitta) would be as absurd as perception perceiving perception, and would result in confusion of remembrance. ||21||

चितेरप्रतिसंक्रमायाः तदाकाराअपत्तौ स्वबुद्धि संवेदनम् ॥२२॥
citer-aprati-saṁkramāyāḥ tad-ākāra-āpattau svabuddhi saṁ-vedanam ॥22॥
Unlike the characteristic of that which is immutable in human beings, the true self is unchangeable and can thus achieve full knowledge and self knowledge. ||23||

द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम् ॥२३॥
draṣṭr̥-dr̥śy-opa-raktaṁ cittaṁ sarva-artham ॥23॥
The actual purpose of that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) is to see close up both the observer (drashtu) and the observed object. ||23||

तदसङ्ख्येय वासनाभिः चित्रमपि परार्थम् संहत्यकारित्वात् ॥२४॥
tad-asaṅkhyeya vāsanābhiḥ citram-api parārtham saṁhatya-kāritvāt ॥24॥
This human mutability (chitta) has countless wishes of every description (vasana). But it has another purpose – namely to establish a connection between the outside world and the true self. ||24||

विशेषदर्शिनः आत्मभावभावनानिवृत्तिः ॥२५॥
viśeṣa-darśinaḥ ātmabhāva-bhāvanā-nivr̥ttiḥ ॥25॥
For he who has experienced this unique vision (darshana), the desire (vritti) for self fulfillment vanishes. ||25||

तदा विवेकनिम्नं कैवल्यप्राग्भारं चित्तम् ॥२६॥
tadā viveka-nimnaṁ kaivalya-prāg-bhāraṁ cittam ॥26॥
Then the power of discernment (viveka) will be strengthened and all that is mutable in human beings (chitta) will take the path of liberation (kaivalya). ||26||

तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः ॥२७॥
tac-chidreṣu pratyaya-antarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ ॥27॥
This viewpoint is breached by preconceptions (samskara), whereupon other impressions arise. ||27||

हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम् ॥२८॥
hānam-eṣāṁ kleśavad-uktam ॥28॥
These preconceptions are eliminated as described previously for spiritual burdens (klesha). ||28||

प्रसंख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेः धर्ममेघस्समाधिः ॥२९॥
prasaṁkhyāne-‘py-akusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāteḥ dharma-meghas-samādhiḥ ॥29॥
Attaining genuinely deep insight even engenders constant imperturbability and discernment (viveka). This state is referred to as dharma megha samadhi. ||29||

ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः ॥३०॥
tataḥ kleśa-karma-nivr̥ttiḥ ॥30॥
Then the concept (vritti) of spiritual burden (klesha) and cause and effect (karma) will be completely removed. ||30||

तदा सर्वाअवरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्याअनन्त्यात् ज्ञेयमल्पम् ॥३१॥
tadā sarva-āvaraṇa-malāpetasya jñānasya-ānantyāt jñeyamalpam ॥31॥
Then all veils and uncertainty fall away. Knowledge that can be gained is nothing compared to the infinity of knowledge. ||31||

ततः कृतार्थानं परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम् ॥३२॥
tataḥ kr̥tārthānaṁ pariṇāma-krama-samāptir-guṇānām ॥32॥
In this way is the purpose of change accomplished and all change (krama) in the physical realm (guna) comes to an end. ||32||

क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्त निर्ग्राह्यः क्रमः ॥३३॥
kṣaṇa-pratiyogī pariṇāma-aparānta nirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ ॥33॥
The experience of a sequencing process of moments and changes comes to an end, thus making change (krama) a real experience. ||33||

पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानांप्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति ॥३४॥
puruṣa-artha-śūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ-pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpa-pratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti ॥34॥
Liberation (kaivalya) fulfills the goal of the true self (purusha); matter (guna) is transcended. The true nature of being and the force of absolute knowledge are then revealed. ||34||